Appalachian History Syllabus_Manget

Course Introduction

This is course is about the history of the Southern Appalachian region.  It is about perception and reality.  It is about the people who have lived there, those who have visited, those who have fallen in love with it from afar, and those who have exploited its people and its rich resources for literary, moral, and material gain.  Indeed, the region has captured the imagination—in both good and bad ways—of many generations of Americans.  Some continue to see it as an isolated backwater, filled with white, barefooted, poor, and backward “hillbillies.”  Others see it as a region of unparalleled beauty the inhabitants of which were/are virtuous, self-reliant, and authentic who have been victimized by outside forces.  These contrasting perceptions have important implications for the future of the region.  But are either of them accurate?  Is Appalachia fundamentally different from the rest of the United States?  Understanding the history of the region can help us answer these important questions.  In this class, we will examine how its human inhabitants have interacted with the unique environments of Southern Appalachia.  We will seek to understand how social, economic, and political forces both within and outside the region shaped the lives of Appalachian people.  And we will explore how the region has served as both protagonist and antagonist in countless narratives of progress and civilization.  This is a fascinating story, filled with dramatic episodes, colorful people, and important lessons that have deep relevance to discussions of poverty, progress, and the sustainable development of the Earth.

Student Learning Objectives

After this class, students will know:

  1. The environmental, social, economic, and political forces at work in Southern Appalachia over time and how these factors have shaped mountain life and culture.
  2. The causes and consequences of poverty in Appalachia.
  3. Significant turning points in the region’s history.
  4. How Americans have perceived and conceived Appalachia over time and why it matters to the development of the region.
  5. The construction and purposes of Appalachian identity.
  6. How the complex relationship between industrial capitalism, the state, Appalachian ecology, and mountain people has changed over time.

After this class, students will be able to:

  1. Appreciate the Appalachian region, its unique characteristics, and its unique problems.
  2. Understand and discuss the historical context of contemporary problems facing Appalachia.
  3. Critically assess various representations of Appalachia and its people in the media.
  4. Speak as a quasi-expert on a topic in Appalachian history.

Required Texts and Readings

  • Tyler Blethen and Richard Straw, High Mountains Rising: Appalachia in Time and Place. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2004.
  • John Williams, Appalachia: A History. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2002.
  • Durwood Dunn, Cades Cove: The Life and Death of a Southern Appalachian Community. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1988.
  • Other required readings can be found either on JSTOR or on the eLC course website (uga.view.usg.edu).

Grading

  • 20% – Class Participation
  • 20% – Midterm exam
  • 20% – Final exam
  • 25% – Research Project
  • 15% – Appalachia through their eyes

Participation and Attendance

  • This class is based around your participation in class. You are expected to do the required readings for each class period, and come to every class ready to comment on them. The reading load for each class period varies, so be sure to plan accordingly.  You are allowed no more than two unexcused absences for the semester.  For every absence after that, your participation grade will be reduced one letter grade.  Those who come to every class will get five bonus points added to their participation grade.

Appalachia through Their Eyes Project

  • For this project, you will choose a memoir or oral history from the list below and write a 3-4-page paper explaining how the author/interviewees address the themes we have discussed in class. How to they conceive of Appalachia? How did they experience some of the significant turning points in Appalachian history? Do they identify as ‘Appalachian’? Why or why not? Do they romanticize it? Or do they criticize it? No two students can use the same book, so email me AS SOON AS you know which book you would like to read.  More specific details for the assignment will follow.
  • Selected book choices
    • Sidney Farr, My Appalachia: A Memoir. Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 2007.
    • Thomas Raine Crowe, Zoro’s Field: My Life in the Appalachian Woods. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2006.
    • Peter Crow, Do, Die, or Get Along: A Tale of Two Appalachian Towns. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2007.
    • Hattie Caldwell Davis, Reflections of Cataloochee Valley and its Vanished People in the Great Smoky Mountains. Davis, 1999.
    • Eleanor Wilson, My Journey to Appalachia: A Year at the Folk School. Bright Mountain Books, 2004.
    • Laurel Shackelford and Bill Weinberg, eds. Our Appalachia: An Oral History. New York: Hill and Wang, 1977.
    • Laurence A. French, An Oral History of Southern Appalachia. Lewiston: The Edwin Mellen Press, 2008.
    • Linda DeRosier, Creeker: A Woman’s Journey. Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1999.
    • Florence Cope Bush, Dorie: Woman of the Mountains. Knoxville: UT Press, 1992.
    • Booker T. Washington, Up From Slavery (specifically, pages 1-80 regarding his youth in Appalachia). http://docsouth.unc.edu/fpn/washington/washing.html.
    • Olive Dame Campbell, Appalachian Travels: The Diary of Olive Dame Campbell. Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 2012.
    • Fred Burnett, This Was My Valley. Ridgecrest, NC: Heritage Printers, 1960.
    • Zetta Barker Hamby, Memoirs of Grassy Creek: Growing Up in the Mountains on the Virginia-North Carolina Line. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1998.
    • Rhoda Warren, Appalachian Mountain Girl: Coming of Age in Coal Mine Country. Chicago: Chicago Review Press, 2005.
    • Suzanne Pickett, The Path was Steep: A Memoir of Appalachian Coal Camps During the Great Depression. New South Books, 2013.
    • D. Vance, Hillbilly Elegy: A Memoir of a Family and Culture in Crisis. Harper, 2016.
    • Jeanette Walls, The Glass Castle: A Memoir. New York: Scribner’s, 2005.
    • Allison Glock, Beauty and Comfort: A Memoir. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2003.
    • Jeff Mann, Loving Mountains, Loving Men. Athens: Ohio University Press, 2005.
    • Bob Fox, Moving Out, Finding Home: Essays on Identity, Place, Community, and Class. Nicholasville, KY: Wind Publications, 2005.

Final Research Project

  • Choose a topic from the course outline below and write a 15-20-page research paper that explores something about that topic. You will write this paper using both primary and secondary sources, and you will be required to turn in both a topic and a draft (see course outline).  You will also be required to come talk to me about your project after you turn in your topic.  Read the “suggested readings” for your topic to get idea of what the scholarship says about your topic, and then do research in primary sources to inform your own take on it.  More information will be provided on how to conduct primary source research, and we will spend at least one class period discussing how to do archival research.  In the meantime, there are many digitized primary source databases available through the library’s website that can help you (see handout).  The final requirement for this project is that you will submit it to the Carl A. Ross Student Paper Competition for the Appalachian Studies Association.

Word of Caution – You will have two assignments and a final exam due in the final two weeks of the class.  DO NOT procrastinate or you will suffer for it.

Make-up Policy:

  • Do not miss a test. I will not administer a make-up exam unless your absence is due to extraordinary circumstances.  This means that you are either violently ill, on a prior approved school function, or at a funeral of a loved one.  You will need to provide documentation for any of these absences.

Classroom environment:

  • Laptops will be allowed in class only on lecture days. If you choose to bring your computer, I expect you to use it to take notes only.  If your computer is causing disruptions in the classroom, I reserve the right to tell you to put it away.  During discussions, they must remain closed.  Furthermore, be respectful with your cell phones.  I won’t ban cell phones, but please don’t spend class time staring at your phone.  Excessive talking, texting, eating, or anything else that, in my judgment, disrupts the learning environment, will not be tolerated.

Academic Honesty:

  • The University of Georgia, as well as the rest of academe, takes academic honesty very seriously. Upon entrance to UGA, you pledged your commitment to perform “all academic work without plagiarism, cheating, lying, tampering, stealing, giving or receiving unauthorized assistance from any other person, or using any source of information that is not common knowledge without properly acknowledging the source.”  You will face severe penalties, including failure in the course and possible expulsion from the university, if you violate this oath.  For more information, see the school’s policy at ovpi.uga.edu/academic-honesty.

Course Outline

Aug. 16 – Course Introduction

Unit 1: What is Appalachia? Who are Appalachians?

Aug. 18 – Introduction to Appalachian exceptionalism.

Reading: Richard B. Drake, “Southern Appalachia and the South: A Region Within a Section,” Journal of the Appalachian Studies Association, 3 (1991), 18-27.

Supplemental Reading – Dwight Billings, Mary Beth Pudup, Altina Waller, “Taking Exception with Exceptionalism: The Emergence and Transformation of Historical Studies of Appalachia,” in Pudup et al, eds., Appalachia in the Making: The Mountain South in the Nineteenth Century (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1995), 1-24. John A. Williams, “Introduction: Ghosts, Boundaries, and Names,” in Appalachia: A History (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2002), 1-18.

Aug. 23 – Appalachia on Our Mind: The Idea and Reality of Appalachia.

Reading:  Cratis D. Williams, “Who are the Southern Mountaineers?” Appalachian Journal, 1, 1 (Autumn, 1972), 48-55.

Supplemental Reading – David Hsuing, “Stereotypes,” in Straw and Blethen, eds., High Mountains Rising: Appalachian in Time and Place (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2004), 101-113. Gordon McKinney, “The First False Frontier: Eastern Kentucky and the Movies,” Register of the Kentucky Historical Society (1998), 119-136.  Anthony Harkin, “Epilogue: From Deliverance to Cyberspace: The Continuing Relevance of ‘Hillbilly’ in Contemporary America,” in Hillbilly: A Cultural History of an American Icon (New York: Oxford University Press, 2004).  Henry Shaprio, Appalachia on Our Mind: The Southern Mountains and Mountaineers in the American Consciousness, 1870-1920 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1978).

Unit 2 – Changes in the Land – Euro-American settlement of Appalachia

Aug. 25 – Natural History of Appalachia –

Readings: Dan Pitillo et al, “Introduction to the Environment and Vegetation of the Southern Blue Ridge Province,” Castanea,(Sept. 1998).

Supplemental Readings: Jennifer Frick-Ruppert, Mountain Nature: A Seasonal Natural History of the Southern Appalachians (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2010). Maurice Brooks, Appalachians (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1965). Sandra H.B. Clark, “Birth of the Mountains: The Geologic Story of the Southern Appalachian Mountains,” U.S. Geological Survey pamphlet. Wilma Dunaway, “The Incorporation of Mountain Ecosystems into the Capitalist World-System,” Review (Ferdinand Braudel Center), 19, 4 (Fall 1996), 355-381. Mary Hufford, “Reclaiming the Commons: Narratives of Progress, Preservation, and Ginseng,” in Howell, ed., Culture, Environment, and Conservation in the Appalachian South (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2002), 100-120. Susan Yarnell, U.S. Forest Service, “The Southern Appalachians: A History of the Landscape,” Southern Research Station General Technical Report No. 18 (1998).

Aug. 30 – Native Americans

Readings:  John A. Williams, “Roads to Qualla,” Appalachia: A History (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2002), 19-82.

Supplemental Readings:  Donald Davis, “Before Albion’s Seed,” in Homeplace Geography: Essays for Appalachia (Macon,GA: Mercer University Press, 2006), 119-126; Donald Davis, “Kituwah: Cherokee Appalachia,” in Where There are Mountains: An Environmental History of the Southern Appalachians (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2001), 57-90. Wilma Dunaway, “The Southern Fur Trade and the Incorporation of Southern Appalachia into the World-Economy, 1690-1763,” Review (Ferdinand Braudel Center), 17, 2, (Spring 1994), 215-242. Tom Hatley, “Cherokee Women Hold their Ground,” in Robert Mitchell, ed., Appalachian Frontiers: Settlement, Society, and Development in the Preindustrial Era (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1991), 37-51.  Clifford Boyd, “Prehistoric and Historic Human Adaptation in Appalachia: An Archaeological Perspective,” Journal of Appalachian Studies (1989), 15-27. Clifford Boyd, “Native Americans,” High Mountains Rising, 7-16. Theda Perdue, “Traditionalism in the Cherokee Nation: Resistance to the Constitution of 1827,” Georgia Historical Quarterly (1982), 159-170. John Finger, “Cherokee Accommodation and Persistence in the Southern Appalachians,” in Pudup et al, eds., Appalachia in the Making: The Mountain South in the Nineteenth Century (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1995), 25-49. Claire Jantz, “Cades Cove: Reconstructing Human Impacts on the Environment Before Euro-American Settlement,” in Howell, ed., Culture, Environment, and Conservation in the Appalachian South (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2002), 42-59.

Sept. 1 Euro-American Settlement

Readings:  John A. Williams, “In the Ocean of Mountains,” in Appalachia: A History, 83-134;

Supplemental – Durwood Dunn, Cades Cove: Life and Death of a Southern Appalachian Community, 1818-1937 (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1988), 1-62. Tyler Blethen, “Pioneer Settlement,” in Straw and Blethen eds., High Mountains Rising: Appalachia in Time and Place (Urbana: U of Illinois Press, 2004), 17-29. Wilma Dunaway, “The Transition to Capitalism on American Frontiers: Toward a Paradigm Shift,” in The First American Frontier: Transition to Capitalism in Southern Appalachia (Chapel Hill: UNC Press, 1996), 1-22. Warren Hofstra, “Ethnicity and Community Formation on the Shenandoah Valley Frontier, 1730-1800,” in Puglisi, ed., Diversity and Accomodation: Essays on the Cultural Composition of the Virginia Frontier (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1997), 59-81. Paul Salstrom, “Newer Appalachia as One of America’s Last Frontiers,” in Pudup et al., eds., Appalachia in the Making: The Mountain South in the Nineteenth Century (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1995), 76-102. Tyler Blethen and Curtis Wood, From Ulster to Carolina: The Migration of the Scotch-Irish to Southwestern North Carolina (Raleigh: N.C. Office of Archives and History, 2013).

Sept. 6 – HOW TO DO PRIMARY RESEARCH – a Visit to the Archives.

Unit 3 – Antebellum Political Ecology

Sept. 13 – Politics

Readings: John A. Williams, “In the Ocean of Mountains,” in Appalachia: A History, 134-156.

Supplemental – Martin Crawford, “Political Society in a Southern Mountain Community: Ashe County, North Carolina, 1850-1861,” Journal of Southern History, 55, 3 (Aug., 1989), 373-390. Van Beck Hall, “The Politics of Appalachian Virginia, 1790-1830,” in Mitchell ed., Appalachian Frontiers: Settlement, Society, and Development in the Industrial Era (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1991), 166-186. John Inscoe, “Thomas Clingman, Mountain Whiggery, and the Southern Cause,” Civil War History (1987), 42-62.  

Sept. 15 – Mountain Agriculture/ Rural Communities

Readings:  Durwood Dunn, Cades Cove, 63-121.

Supplemental:  Ralph Lutts, “Like Manna from God: The American Chestnut Trade in Southwestern Virginia,” Environmental History, 9, 3 (July 2004), 497-525. Luke Manget, “Nature’s Emporium: The Botanical Drug Trade and the Commons Tradition in Southern Appalachia,” Environmental History (October 2016), 660-687. Martin Crawford, “Mountain Farmers and the Market Economy: Ashe County During the 1850s,” The North Carolina Historical Review, 71, 4 (October 1994), 430-450. John Inscoe, “Mountain Masters: Slaveholding in Western North Carolina,” North Carolina Historical Review (1984), 143-173. John Inscoe, Mountain Masters: Slavery and the Sectional Crisis in Western North Carolina (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1989).  Ralph Mann, “Diversity in the Antebellum Appalachian South: Four Farm Communities in Tazewell County, Virginia,” in Pudup et al., eds., Appalachia in the Making: The Mountain South in the Nineteenth Century (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1995), 132-162. Gordon McKinney, “Economy and Community in Western North Carolina, 1860-1865,” in Pudup et al., eds., Appalachia in the Making: The Mountain South in the Nineteenth Century (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1995), 163-184. Dwight B. Billings and Kathleen Blee, “Agriculture and Poverty in the Kentucky Mountains: Beech Creek, 1850-1910,” in Pudup et al., eds., Appalachia in the Making: The Mountain South in the Nineteenth Century (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1995), 233-269.

Sept. 20 – Slavery

Readings:  John Inscoe, “Mountain Masters: Slaveholding in Western North Carolina,” North Carolina Historical Review (1984), 143-173.

Supplemental: John Inscoe, Mountain Masters: Slavery and the Sectional Crisis in Western North Carolina (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1989). Wilma Dunaway, “Diaspora, Death, and Sexual Exploitation: Slave Families at Risk in the Mountain South,” Appalachian Journal (1998), 128-149. Ellen Eslinger, “The Shape of Slavery on Virginia’s Kentucky Frontier, 1775-1800,” in Puglisi, Diversity and Accomodation: Essays on the Cultural Composition of the Virginia Frontier (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1997), 172-193. Marilyn Davis-DeEulis, “Slavery on the Margins of the Virginia Frontier: African American Literacy in Western Kanawha and Cabell Counties, 1795-1840,” in Puglisi, Diversity and Accomodation: Essays on the Cultural Composition of the Virginia Frontier (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1997), 194-209. Film: Journey of August King (1995).

Unit 4: Civil War Era in Appalachia

Sept. 22 – Loyalty and Fighting in the Mountains

Readings: Durwood Dunn, Cades Cove, 123-141. Johnathan Dean Sarris, “Anatomy of an Atrocity: The Madden Branch Massacre and Guerilla Warfare in North Georgia, 1861-1865,” Georgia Historical Quarterly (1993), 679-710.

Supplemental: Philip Shaw Paludan, Victims: A True Story of the Civil War (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1981).  John Inscoe and Gordon McKinney, “Guerilla Warfare: Rule by Bushwackers, Tories, and Yankees,” in The Heart of Confederate Appalachia: Western North Carolina in the Civil War (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2000), 105-138. Patricia D. Beaver, “The Civil War on the North Fork of the New River: The Cultural Politics of Elevation & Sustaining Community,” Appalachian Journal, Vol. 34, No. 1 (Fall 2006), 98-116. John Inscoe and Gordon McKinney, “Highland Households Divided: Family Deceptions, Diversions, and Divisions in Southern Appalachia’s Inner Civil War,” in Inscoe and Kenzer, eds., Enemies of the Country: New Perspectives on Unionists in the Civil War South (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2001), 55-78. Martin Crawford, Ashe County’s Civil War: Community and Society in the Appalachian South (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 2001), 74-147. Jonathan Dean Sarris, A Separate Civil War: Communities in Conflict in the Mountain South (Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2006). Kenneth Noe and Shannon Wilson, eds., The Civil War in Appalachia: Collected Essays (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1997).

Sept. 27 – Reconstruction and the Impacts of the Civil War

Readings: John A. Williams, “Blood and Legends,” in Appalachia: A History, 157-224. Dunn,  Cades Cove, 143-200.

Supplemental: Gordon McKinney, “Civil War and Reconstruction,” in Straw and Blethen, eds., High Mountains Rising: Appalachia in Time and Place (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2004), 46-58.  McKenzie, “’Oh! Ours Is a Deplorable Condition’: The Economic Impact of the Civil War in Upper East Tennessee,” in Noe and Wilson, eds., The Civil War in Appalachia: Collected Essays (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1997), 199-226. Andrew Slap, ed., Reconstructing Appalachia: The Civil War’s Aftermath (Lexington:  University of Kentucky Press, 2010). Steven Nash, Reconstruction’s Ragged Edge: The Politics of Postwar Life in the Southern Mountains (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2016). John Inscoe, “Guerilla War and Remembrance,” Appalachian Journal, 34, 1 (Fall 2006), 74-97.  Supplemental: Luke Manget, “Sanging in the Mountains: The Ginseng Economy in the Southern Appalachians, 1865-1900,” Appalachian Journal, 40, 1-2 (Fall 2012/Winter 2013). Steven Nash, “Everything that the Devil Can Suggest: Klan Violence and the Republicans’ Failure, 1868-1872,” in Reconstruction’s Ragged Edge, 118-148.

Sept. 29-Oct. 4 – Film: Cold Mountain (2003).

Unit 5 – Changing Political Ecology

Oct. 6 – Politics – RESEARCH PAPER TOPIC DUE.

Readings:  John A. Williams, “Standing the Times, 1880-1940,” Appalachia: A History, 225-281.

Supplemental:  Ken Fones-Wolf, “A House Redivided: From Sectionalism to Political Economy in West Virginia,” in Slap, ed., Reconstructing Appalachia: The Civil War’s Aftermath (Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 2010), 237-268. John Alexander Williams, “Class, Section, and Culture in Nineteenth-Century West Virginia Politics,” in Pudup et al., eds., Appalachia in the Making: The Mountain South in the Nineteenth Century (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1995), 210-232. Steven Nash, “The Beginning of a ‘New’ Mountain South: Agriculture, Railroads, and Social Change, 1872-1880,” in Reconstruction’s Ragged Edge: The Politics of Postwar Life in the Southern Mountains (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2016), 149-177. Stephen Hahn, “Common Right and Commonwealth,” in Roots of Southern Populism (New York: Oxford University Press, 1983), 240-270. Shawn Kantor and J. Morgan Kousser, “Common Sense or Commonwealth? The Fence Law and Institutional Change in the Postbellum South,” Journal of Southern History (1993), 201-242.

Oct. 11 – Coal and minerals industry.

Readings: Ronald Eller, “Coal, Culture, and Community: Life in the Company Towns,” in Miners, Millhands, and Mountaineers: Industrialization of the Appalachian South, 1880-1930 (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1982), 161-198.

Supplemental:  Alan Banks, “Class Formation in the Southeastern Kentucky Coalfields, 1890-1920,” in Pudup et al., eds., Appalachia in the Making: The Mountain South in the Nineteenth Century (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1995), 321-345. Ronald Lewis, “Industrialization,” in Straw and Blethen, eds., High Mountains Rising (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2004), 59-73. Chad Montrie, “Continuity in the Midst of Change: Work and Environment for West Virginia Mountaineers,” West Virginia History, 1, 1 (Spring 2007), 1-22. Film: Matewan (1987).

Oct. 13 – Timber Industry

Readings: Ronald Lewis, “Railroads, Deforestation, and the Transformation of Agriculture in the West Virginia Back Counties, 1880-1920,” in Pudup et al., eds., Appalachia in the Making: The Mountain South in the Nineteenth Century (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1995), 297-320.

Supplemental:  Donald Davis, “Appalachia: Making the Modern Landscape,” in Where There are Mountains: An Environmental History of the Southern Appalachians (Athens: UGA Press, 2000), 163-198. Margaret Lynn Brown, “A Lumberman’s Dream,” in The Wild East: A Biography of the Great Smoky Mountains (Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 2000), 49-77. Ronald Lewis, Transforming the Appalachian Countryside: Railroads, Deforestation, and Social Change in West Virginia, 1880-1920 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998).

Oct. 18 – MIDTERM EXAM.

Oct. 20-25 – Film – Matewan (1987).  Without readings, use this opportunity to work on your individual research projects.

Unit 6: The “Discovery” of Appalachia

Oct. 27 – Local Colorists and the Literary Discovery of Appalachia.

Readings:  John Fox, Jr., “A Mountain Europa,” Century Magazine, Sept. 1892, 760-776, 846-870.

Supplemental: Henry D. Shapiro, “The Local Color Movement and the ‘Discovery’ of Appalachia,” in Appalachia on Our Mind: The Southern Mountains and Mountaineers in the American Consciousness, 1870-1920 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1978), 3-31. Cratis Williams, “The Southern Mountaineer in Fact and Fiction, Parts I-III,” Appalachian Journal (Fall 1975-Spring 1976). Durwood Dunn, “Mary Noailles Murfree: A Reappraisal,” Appalachian Journal, 6, 3 (Spring 1976), 196-204. Karen J. Jacobsen, “Another Reappraisal: The Cultural Work of Mary Noailles Murfree’s ‘In the Tennessee Mountains,’” Appalachian Journal, 35, 1-2 (Fall 2007/Winter 2008), 90-107. Ann Pancake, “’Similar Outcroppings from the Same Strata’: The Synonymous ‘Development’ Imagery of Appalachian Natives and Natural Resources,” Journal of Appalachian Studies, 6, 1-2 (Spring/Fall 2000), 100-108. Dwight Billings and Kathleen Blee, “Where the Sun Sets Crimson and the Moon Rose Red: Writing Appalachia and the Kentucky Mountain Feuds,” Southern Cultures (1996), 329-353. Emily Satterwhite, Dear Appalachia: Readers, Identity, and Popular Fiction since 1878 (Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 2011).

Nov. 1 – Progressive Social Reform in the Mountains

Readings:  William G. Frost, “Our Contemporary Ancestors,” Atlantic Monthly ( March 1899), 311-319. Durwood Dunn, Cades Cove, 221-240; William Link, “The Contours of Social Policy,” in The Paradox of Southern Progressivism, 1880-1930 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1992), 1-24.

Supplemental:  Henry D. Shapiro, “Protestant Home Missions and the Institutionalization of Appalachian Otherness,” in Appalachia on Our Mind: The Southern Mountains and Mountaineers in the American Consciousness, 1870-1920 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1978), 32-58.

Nov. 3 – The Missionary Impulse

Readings: David Whisnant, “Controversy in God’s Grand Divisions: The Council of the Southern Mountains,” Appalachian Journal, 2, 1 (Autumn 1974), 7-45.

Supplemental: Loyal Jones, Thomas Parrish, A.H. Perrin, David E. Whisnant, Richard D. Howe, “Problems in Revisionism: More Controversy in ‘God’s Grand Division,” Appalachian Journal, 2, 3 (Spring 1975), 171-191. Penny Messinger, “Restoring the Woman Reformer: Helen Hastie Dingman and ‘Mountain Work,’ 1916-1950,” Appalachian Journal, 37, 3-4 (Spring/Summer 2010), 242-264. David Whisnant, “All That is Native in Fine: The Cultural Work of Olive Dame Campbell, 1908-1948,” in All That is Native and Fine: The Politics of Culture in an American Region (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1983), 103-180. Henry D. Shapiro, “Protestant Home Missions and the Institutionalization of Appalachian Otherness,” in Appalachia on Our Mind: The Southern Mountains and Mountaineers in the American Consciousness, 1870-1920 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1978), 32-58.  John C. Campbell, The Southern Highlander and His Homeland (Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1969 [1921]).

Unit 6 – Creating a Federal Landscape in Appalachia

Nov. 8 – National Parks and National Forests

Readings: Durwood Dunn, “Death by Eminent Domain,” Cades Cove, 241-257. Kathryn Newfont,  “De Jure Commons: National Forests and Blue Ridge Neighbors,” in Blue Ridge Commons: Environmental Activism and Forest History in Western North Carolina (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2012), 97-123.

Supplemental Reading: Dan Pierce, “The Barbarism of the Huns: Family and Community Removal in the Establishment of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park,” Tennessee Historical Quarterly, 57, 1 (Spring/Summer 1998), 62-79. Dan Pierce, The Great Smokies: From Natural Habitat to National Park (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 2000).  Michael Ann Williams, “’When I can Read my Title Clear’: Anti-Environmentalism and Sense of Place in the Great Smoky Mountains,” in Howell, ed., Culture, Environment, and Conservation in the Appalachian South (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2002), 87-99. Katrina Powell, “Writing the Geography of the Blue Ridge Mountains: How Displacement Recorded the Land,” Biography, 25, 1 (Winter 2002), 73-94. Will Sarvis, “An Appalachian Forest: Creation of the Jefferson National Forest and Its Effects on the Local Community,” Forest and Conservation History, 37, 4 (October 1993), 169-178.

Nov. 10 – The Depression

Readings: Elvin Hatch, “Delivering the Goods: Cash, Subsistence Farms, and Identity in a Blue Ridge County in the 1930s,” Journal of Appalachian Studies, 9, 1 (Spring 2003), 6-48.

Supplemental:  Ted Olson, “The Depths of the Great Depression: Economic Collapse in West Virginia, 1932-1933,” West Virginia History (1977), 214-225. Samuel Cook, “The Great Depression, Subsistence, and Views of Poverty in Wyoming County, West Virginia,” Journal of Appalachian Studies, 4, 2 (Fall 1998), 271-283. Jane Becker, Selling Tradition: Appalachia and the Construction of an American Folk, 1930-1940 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998). Muriel Sheppard, Cabins in the Laurel (Chapel Hill: UNC Press, 1991 [1935])

Nov. 15 – TVA and the New Deal

Readings:  Williams, Appalachia, 289-308.

Supplemental: David Whisnant, “All Forms of Human Concerns: The Tennessee Valley Authority, 1933-75,” in Modernizing the Mountaineer: People, Power, and Planning in Appalachia, Rev. Ed. (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1994), 43-69. Melissa Walker, “African Americans and TVA Reservoir Property Removal: Race in a New Deal Program,” Agricultural History, 72, 2 (Spring 1998), 417-428. Arthur Morgan, “Social Methods of the Tennessee Valley Authority,” The Journal of Educational Sociology, 8, 5 (Jan., 1935), 261-265.  Anne Mitchell, “Culture, History, and Development on the Qualla Boundary: The Eastern Cherokees and the Blue Ridge Parkway, 1935-1940,” Appalachian Journal, 24, 2 (Winter 1997), 144-191.

Unit 6 – Appalachia in the Age of Affluence

Nov. 17 – War on Poverty

Reading: Williams, Appalachia: A History, 309-348.

Supplemental: David Whisnant, “Appalachia and the War on Poverty: The Office of Economic Opportunity,” in Modernizing the Mountaineer: People, Power, and Planning in Appalachia, Rev. Ed. (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1994),92-125. John R. Burch, “The Turner Family of Breathitt County, Kentucky, and the War on Poverty,” The Register of the Kentucky Historical Society, 107, 3 (Summer 2009), 401-417. Thomas Kiffmeyer, “’We are Ordered to Do Everything’: The National Advisory Commission on Rural Poverty, American Social Thought, and the War on Poverty,” The Register of the Kentucky Historical Society, 107, 3 (Summer 2009), 339-369.

Nov. 22 – Film: Stranger With a Camera (2000). FIRST DRAFT OF RESEARCH PAPER DUE.

Nov. 24 – THANKSGIVING BREAK.

Nov. 29 – Appalachia and the Counterculture

Reading: Williams, Appalachia: A History, 348-366; Paul Salstrom, “The Neonatives: Back-to-the-Land in Appalachia’s 1970s,” Appalachian Journal, 30, 4 (Summer 2003), 368-387.

Supplemental: Thomas J. Kiffmeyer, “From Self-Help to Sedition: The Appalachian Volunteers in Eastern Kentucky, 1964-1970,” Journal of Southern History, 64, 1 (Feb., 1998), 65-94. Jinny A. Turman-Deal, “’We Were an Oddity’: A Look at the Back-to-the-Land Movement in Appalachia,” West Virginia History, 4, 1 (Spring 2010), 1-32. George L. Hicks, Experimental Americans: Celo and Utopian Community in the Twentieth Century (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2001). Michael Ann Williams, “Folklife,” High Mountains Rising, 135-146. Bill C. Malone, “Music,” High Mountains Rising, 114-134.

Dec. 1 – Preparing for a post-industrial future –

Readings: William Schumann, “Sustainable Development in Appalachia: Two Views,” Journal of Appalachian Studies, 22, 1 (Spring 2016), 19-30.

Supplemental: Jefferson Boyer, “Reinventing the Appalachian Commons,” Social Analysis, 50, 3 (Winter 2006), 217-232. Steve Owen and Jeff Boyer, “Energy, Environment, and Sustainable Industry in the Appalachian Mountains, United States,” Mountain Research and Development, 26, 2 (May 2006), 115-118. Joyce Barry, “Mountaineers are Always Free? An Examination of the Effects of Mountaintop Removal in West Virginia,” Women’s Studies Quarterly, 29, 1-2 (Spring/Summer 2001), 116-130. Susan E. Keefe, “Theorizing Modernity in Appalachia,” Journal of Appalachian Studies, 14, 1-2 (Spring/Fall 2008), 160-173.

Dec. 6 –  Final class discussion – APPALACHIA THROUGH THEIR EYES PROJECT DUE

Dec. 8 –  FINAL RESEARCH PAPER DUE

Dec. 13 – FINAL EXAM.